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Emory Researchers Discover Novel Mechanism of How Anthrax Impairs Immunity

July 16,2003

Findings May Have Implications for Developing More Effective Therapies

Media Contacts

Lisa Newbern, 404-727-7709, lisa.newbern@emory.edu; Holly Korschun, 404-727-3990, hkorsch@emory.edu; Kelly Duncan, 404-727-9254, kadunca@emory.edu

ATLANTA – In the first study of its kind, researchers led by Bali Pulendran, PhD, at the Emory Vaccine Center and the Yerkes National Primate Research Center have shown anthrax lethal factor (LF) impairs the function of dendritic cells and thereby compromises the immune system’s ability to fight the microbe. The findings, which appear in the July 17 issue of Nature, have implications for developing more effective anthrax therapies and guiding researchers in better controlling detrimental immune responses, such as in autoimmune diseases and organ rejection following transplant surgeries.

For his study, Dr. Pulendran, associate professor in the department of pathology at Emory, and Anshu Agrawal, PhD, a post-doctoral fellow in his lab, in collaboration with Conrad Quinn, PhD, and Jai Lingappa, MD, at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Steve Leppla, PhD, at the National Institutes of Health, chose to study dendritic cells versus the previously studied macrophages. Dendritic cells are widely recognized as the most efficient antigen-presenting cells, making them pivotal in initiating and modulating any immune response against microbes. "This is the first study that demonstrates any interaction between Bacillus anthracis and dendritic cells, " says Dr. Pulendran. "Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of action by which the microbe targets the host-immune reaction."

In the study, Dr. Pulendran’s research team demonstrated LF impairs dendritic cell function by disrupting the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase enzymes within dendritic cells. Consequently, the dendritic cells become lethargic and unable to act normally, thereby preventing the activation of the immune system to attack microbes such as anthrax.

"When a person is infected with a microbe, we count on the immune system to begin fighting the foreign substance immediately," Dr. Pulendran commented. "When the dendritic cells are compromised, such as in our study with the anthrax lethal factor, the innate immune system is unable to stimulate the immune response, thus permitting the microbe to spread unchecked. Our ultimate goal is to apply this novel finding to develop better anthrax treatments and to shape future research into controlling immune responses more appropriately," Pulendran continued.

The Emory researchers’ immediate next steps are to test the effects of LF in suppressing other immune models, such as in allergies and autoimmune diseases, and to look more closely at immune responses several days post infection, when toxic-shock-like symptoms begin.

The mission of the Emory Vaccine Center is to create new technologies for the prevention of emerging infectious diseases, by conducting basic and translational research and clinical trials. The Vaccine Center was established in 1996 with support from Emory University and the Georgia Research Alliance.



The Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences Center of Emory University is an academic health science and service center focused on missions of teaching, research, health care and public service. Its components include the Emory University School of Medicine, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, and Rollins School of Public Health; Yerkes National Primate Research Center; Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University; and Emory Healthcare, the largest, most comprehensive health system in Georgia. Emory Healthcare includes: The Emory Clinic, Emory-Children's Center, Emory University Hospital, Emory University Hospital Midtown, Wesley Woods Center, and Emory University Orthopaedics & Spine Hospital. The Woodruff Health Sciences Center has a $2.5 billion budget, 17,600 employees, 2,500 full-time and 1,500 affiliated faculty, 4,700 students and trainees, and a $5.7 billion economic impact on metro Atlanta.

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