September 7, 2012
Researchers from Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Emory Vaccine Center will develop tools to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against HIV
Lisa Newbern, 404-727-7709, email@example.com
ATLANTA — A team of researchers at Emory University has received a three-year grant of $6 million from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation as part of a worldwide effort aimed at developing an effective vaccine for HIV/AIDS.
The grant is part of the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD), an international network of scientists and experts dedicated to designing a variety of novel HIV vaccine candidates and advancing the most promising candidates to clinical trials. Bali Pulendran, PhD, principal investigator of the grant, will lead the Emory team, which comprises researchers from Yerkes National Primate Research Center and the Emory Vaccine Center (EVC). Rafi Ahmed, PhD, director of the EVC, is co-principal investigator.
The Emory researchers will lead a project in nonhuman primates aimed at programming innate immunity to induce optimally effective protective antibodies against HIV. They will use vaccine technology Pulendran and his Emory colleague Sudhir Kasturi, PhD, developed. They created nanoparticles that mimic viruses and are covered with molecules that activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In mice, these particles can stimulate long-lasting immune responses to inactivated influenza virus that last the lifetime of the animal. The nanoparticles were also shown to be effective immunity against influenza in nonhuman primates; this research was reported in the February 23, 2011, online issue of Nature, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v470/n7335/full/nature09737.html.
The grant from the Gates Foundation will allow the researchers to optimize their TLR nanoparticle approach for an HIV vaccine and test the vaccine’s ability to provide immune protection in a nonhuman primate model of HIV infection.
“An intriguing aspect of the data from the recent vaccine clinical trial in Thailand, RV144, was that although it resulted in a modest reduction in infection compared with placebo, protective immunity diminished over time,” notes Pulendran. “This underscores the importance of generating durable antibody responses. We believe our approach is particularly well-suited to this challenge.”
In addition to Pulendran, who is a Charles Howard Candler Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Emory School of Medicine and a leading researcher at Yerkes, and Ahmed, a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar, the Emory team includes Kasturi, research assistant professor at Yerkes; Francois Villinger, PhD, chief of the division of pathology and laboratory medicine at Yerkes; and Tianwei Yu, PhD, assistant professor of biostatistics at Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University. Other investigators are Shane Crotty, PhD, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Jeffrey Hubbell and Melody Swartz, bioengineers at Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and investigators at 3M Pharmaceuticals and Novartis.
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the CAVD in July 2006 and has since funded a total of 30 grants supporting investigators in 19 countries. The CAVD operates on the principle that accelerating progress toward an AIDS vaccine requires the creativity of individual investigators supported by a collaborative approach that emphasizes the sharing of scientific information and the standardization of laboratory techniques and data analysis.
The Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences Center of Emory University is an academic health science and service center focused on missions of teaching, research, health care and public service. Its components include the Emory University School of Medicine, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, and Rollins School of Public Health; Yerkes National Primate Research Center; Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University; and Emory Healthcare, the largest, most comprehensive health system in Georgia. Emory Healthcare includes: The Emory Clinic, Emory-Children's Center, Emory University Hospital, Emory University Hospital Midtown, Wesley Woods Center, and Emory University Orthopaedics & Spine Hospital. The Woodruff Health Sciences Center has a $2.5 billion budget, 17,600 employees, 2,500 full-time and 1,500 affiliated faculty, 4,700 students and trainees, and a $5.7 billion economic impact on metro Atlanta.